Database Management System

These are the notes of the Database Management System according to the syllabus of Pokhara University. You can easily access them by clicking the links provided.

Unit One: Introduction                                                                                                              

Unit Two: Database Design and the E-R model                                                              

  • E-R model,
  • Entity sets, Relationship  sets,  Attributes,  Constraints,  Mapping  Cardinalities, Participation constraints, Keys (Super key, Candidate key, Primary key),
  • Entity Relationship Diagram,
  • Basic Structure, Mapping Cardinality,
  • mapping cardinalities in E-R DIAGRAM,
  • Complex attributes, Roles, non-binary relationship sets, Weak, strong entity sets, E-R Diagram

Unit Three: Introduction to the Relational model                                                         

  • Structure of Rational database,
  • Instances and Schemas
  • Database Schemes (case study), Keys,
  • Schema Diagram,
  • Rational Query Language, Relational opera

Unit Four: Introduction to SQL                                                                                     

  • Overview of SQL Query language,
  • SQL Data Definition, Basic types,
  • Basic Schema Definition,
  • Basic Structure of SQL Queries (single, multiple), Natural join, Additional Basic Operations, Set operational (union,  intersect,  except),  Null  Values,  Aggregate  function  (Basic,  Grouping, Having,  Nested  sub-queries  (comparison,  empty  relating  from  clause)  Scalar  sub-queries),
  • Modification of the database. (insert, update, delete),
  • Join Expression, join conditions, outer joins, view, materialized view, Transaction (commit, Rollback), Integrity constraints (not null, unique, check, referential integrity), Authorization (Grant, Revoke), Roles, view, transfer of privileges, revoking of privileges,
  • Functions and Procedures, Declaring and Revoking SQL functions and Procedures,
  • Language constraints for procedures and functions, Triggers, indexes

Unit Five: Relational Database Design                                                                         

Unit Six: Transactions                                                                                                            

Unit Seven: Concurrency Control                                                                                   

  • Lock-Based protocols, Dead-lock handling,
  • Multiple Granularities, Time-stamp Based Protocols,
  • Validation based protocols

Unit Eight: Recovery System                                                                                                 

  • Failure  classification,   Storage,   Recovery   and   atomicity,   Recovery   Algorithm,
  • Buffer management,
  • Failure with loss of non-volatile storage,
  • Early lock release and logical undo operations,
  • Remote Backup systems

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