# Statistics

Unit I Introduction

• Basic concepts of statistics
• Terminologies associated with statistics such as populations and samples
• Variables (Dependent and independent only)
• Types and sources of data, Descriptive and inferential statistics
• Data processing (editing and coding)
• Applications of statistics in business and management.

Unit II Describing Data: Graphs and Tables

• Method of forming Class Interval
• Data array
• Stem and leaf Display
• Frequency tables, Histograms
• Polygon
• Cumulative Polygon
• Scatter plots
• Simple Bar and Pie charts
• Cross tabulation

Unit III Describing Data: Summary Measures

• Central Location: Arithmetic Mean, Median, and Mode
• Non Central Location Partition Values: Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles
• Dispersion: Range, Interquartile range, Variance, Standard deviation, Coefficient of variation, Index for qualitative variation (IQV)
• Shape: Crude measure (comparison of mean, median, and mode), five-number summary, Box plot
• Inequality Measure: Gini concentration ratio

Unit IV Basics of Probability Theory

• Basic concepts
• Counting rule
• Objective and subjective probability
• Marginal and joint Probability
• Conditional probability
• Multiplication rules
• Bayes’ Theorem.

Unit V Probability Distributions

• Discrete probability distribution (Binomial and Poisson distribution and mean and standard deviation of their distributions)
• Continuous probability distribution: Normal distribution, Normal approximation of Binomial and Poisson distribution

Unit VI Estimation and Hypothesis Testing

• Concept of estimation
• Confidence intervals
• confidence intervals for means and proportions ( one sample case only )
• Test of significance
• p-value approach to hypothesis testing
• the connection between confidence intervals and hypothesis testing
• comparing two means (two-sample z and t-test procedures)
• comparing two proportions.