Principles of Marketing

These are the notes of Principles of Marketing with course code MKT 241 abided by the syllabus of Pokhara University for BCIS. Click on the links below to check out the notes.

Course Contents

Unit I: Marketing and Marketing Environment  (12 hours)

Introduction to Marketing and Marketing Management:

Meaning of marketing; Evolution of the Marketing philosophies (marketing concepts); Basic principles of the marketing concept and holistic marketing concept. Meaning and tasks of marketing management.

Marketing in the Contemporary World: Marketing challenges of the 21st  century and firms’ responses to the challenges; Concept, relevance and practices of relationship marketing, green marketing, e-marketing, pyramid (C2C) marketing, and rural marketing.

Marketing Mix: Components of the marketing mix for products and services.

Marketing Environment: Meaning and scope of marketing environment; Microenvironment variables, and Macro environment variables; Reactive and proactive marketing.   Marketing environment in Nepal.

Unit II: Marketing Information System and Buyer Behavior (10 hours)

Marketing  Information  System:  Concept and relevance;  Components of the marketing information system; Marketing research areas and process.

Buyer Behavior: Organizational buyer behavior –  Buying process and influencing factors. Consumer behavior  –  buying process and influencing factors.  Consumer movement and consumer protection.

Unit III: Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning Strategies (4 hours)

Segmentation: Concept, process, and requirements; levels of segmentation; bases for segmenting consumer and organizational markets.

Targeting: Segment evaluation, analysis, and selection.

Positioning: Concept and types of positioning; product positioning process.

Unit IV: Product, Pricing, Distribution and Promotion Strategies (22 hours)

Product: Concept and levels of the product; product classifications; Product life cycle stages and strategies; New product development process; Branding strategies – branding objectives, types of brand, and concept of brand equity; Packaging: functions and levels of packaging; essentials of a good package; Product line and mix strategies; Service product strategies: service marketing concept, characteristics of services and marketing strategies; management of people, physical evidences, and process.

Pricing: Concept of price and pricing; Importance of pricing; Internal and external price factors; Pricing approaches – cost-based, demand-based, value-based and competition-based approaches; New product pricing; price lining, price adjustments, initiating and responding to price changes.

Distribution: Concept and objectives; Channel functions; Channel designs for consumer and industrial products; Channel selection factors; Channel conflicts and their resolution. Marketing logistics:   Concept,   nature   and   objectives;   major   logistics   functions   –   transportation, warehousing, inventory management, order processing, and customer services decisions.

Promotion: Concept; Marketing communication process and systems; promotion mix components; promotion mix determination factors.   Advertising: Nature and objectives; Advertising budgeting approaches; Adverting message design factors; Advertising media selection factors. Personal Selling: Nature and relevance of personal selling; Types of personal selling. Sales Promotions: Nature and objectives; Sales promotion tools and techniques. Public Relations: Nature and objectives; tools of public relations. Direct marketing: Concept and relevance; Methods of direct marketing.

Basic Texts

  • Kotler, Philip, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque. Principles of Marketing: South Asian Perspective. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.
    Baines, Paul, Chris Fill and Kelly Page. Essentials of Marketing. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.


  • Koirala, K. D. Principles of Marketing: Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Publications.
  • Kamarulzaman, Yusniza and Nor Khalidah Abu. Principles of Marketing: New Delhi: Oxford University Press.