Data Communications and Networks

These are the notes of Data Communications and Networks with course code CMP 362 abided by the syllabus of Pokhara University. Click on the links below to check out the notes.

Course Contents

Unit I: Data Communication Fundamental (5 hours)

Introduction, Block diagram, Data components, Simplex, Duplex, Half Duplex, Signal: Analog and Digital Modulation and its types, Multiplexing and its types, Data representation: Line coding, Transmissions impairments

Unit II: Introduction to Computer Network (5 hours)

Definition, Uses of network, Types of networking: LAN, WAN, MAN, Extra-Net, Intra-Net, Inter-Net, Networking Model: Client-Server, Peer-to-peer model, Active model, Protocols and Standards, Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Protocol, OSI Reference Model and TCP/IP Model, Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP Model, Example network: X.25, Frame Relay, NGN and MPLS

Unit III: Physical Layer and its Design issues (5 hours)

Introduction, design issues and duties of physical layer, Transmission media: Guided: Twisted Pair,  Coaxial,  Fiber  optic.  Unguided:  Electromagnetic  spectrum,  Line  of  Sight,  Satellite, Wireless LAN IEEE 802.11 standards. Bandwidth and Data Rate, Switching: Circuit switching, Packet switching. Devices: Hub, Repeaters

Unit IV: Data Link Layer (6 hours)

Services, Framing, Error Control: detection and Correction, Flow Control Elementary Data link protocol,  Sliding  Window  Protocol,  Go  Back  N,  Selective  Repeat.  Example  of  Data  Link Protocol:  HDLC,  PPP.  The  Medium  Access  Control  Sub-layer,  Multiple  access  protocol Devices: Switches, Bridges

Unit V: Network Layer (12 hours)

Network layer and its Design issues, Devices: Routers, Gateway. Virtual Circuit and Datagrams Switching, Routing: Static vs. Dynamic, Routing algorithms: Shortest path algorithm, Flooding, Distance vector routing, Link state routing. Congestion Control algorithm: Leaky Bucket and Token Bucket. Internet Protocol: IPv4 frame format, IP Addresses and Classes, Subnetting and Subnet mask.  Introduction to IPv6, frame format, addressing, transition from IPv4 to IPv6: Dual stack, Tunneling and Header Translation.

Unit VI: Transport Layer (3 hours)

Services provided to upper layer, Transport protocols: TCP, UDP, SCTP, Ports and Sockets

Unit VII: Application Layer (3 hours)

DHCP, DNS, HTTP, SMTP, PROXY, FTP, Example of Clients and Servers Tools

Unit VIII: Network Management and Network Security (6 hours)

Network Management: Introduction, Components & Internet Management Framework.

Network Security: Introduction, Goals. Attacks and countermeasures: Mapping, Packet sniffing, spoofing, Denial-of-Service Attacks and Hijacking. Cryptography: Symmetric Key and Public Key.  Network layer security: IPsec, VPN. Wireless LAN Security: WEP, WPA. Firewalls

Unit IX: Cloud Networking (2 hours)

Introduction, concepts of cloud networking, Network virtualization

Laboratory Works

  • Network cabling and LAN setup
  • Computer Networking on Windows Based Platform (Commands and Tools use)
  • Computer Networking on Unix Based Platform (Commands and Tools use)
  • Installation and Configuration of Different Types of Servers
  • User of Traffic Analyzer
  • Implement Network Security and Policies


  1. Forouzan, B.  A.  Data  Communication  and  Networking.  New  Delhi:  McGraw  Hill Education.
  2. Tanenbaum, A. S. Computer Networks. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.
  3. Jenkins, N., & Schatt, S. Understanding Local Area Networks. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.
  4. Stalling, W. Data and Computer Communication, New Jersey: Macmillan Press.
  5. Kurose & Ross. Computer Networking: A top down approach. New Jersey: Pearson Education.