Generation of computer || History of computer || Bcis Notes

 Generation of computer

1. First-generation of computer (1940-1956)
2. Second-generation of computer(1956-1963)
3. Third-generation of computer (1964-1971)
4. Fourth-generation of computers (1971-present)
5. Fifth-generation of computers (present and beyond)

First-generation of computers(1940-1956)


  • Vacuum tubes and magnetic drums were often used.
  • Taking an entire room, this computer weighed 30 tons, and 18000 vacuum tubes used for processing.
  • Very expensive to operate due to the excessive amount of heat.
  • They have relied on machine language.
  • Input and output were based on a punch card.
  • Used for the government on the census.
  • The computer of this generation could only perform a single task and no operating functions.
    UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of the first generation of computer.

Second-generation of computers(1956-1963)


  • Allowed programmers to specify instructions in words.
  • Still relied on punch cards.
  • Transistor is used in this computer instead of vacuum tubes which were more reliable.
  • The magnetic core technology was used by replacing the magnetic drum.
  • During this generation over 100 computers, programming languages were developed,
  • computers had memory and operating systems. storage media such as tape and disk
  • were in use along with printers for output.

Third-generation of computers(1964-1971)

  • IC (integrated circuit) was the hallmark of the third generation computers.
  • Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chip called semiconductors.
  • Much smaller and cheaper.
  • Carry out instructions in billions of a second.
  • Used keyboards and monitors for user interaction.
  • Accessible to a mass audience.

Fourth-generation of computers(1971-Present)

  • Thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip called microprocessor used in the fourth-generation computer.
  • As these small computers became more powerful. They could be linked together from networks which eventually lead to the development of the internet.
  • The Intel 4004 chip developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer from
  • the CPU and memory to input/output controls on a single chip.
    GUIS was also developed in this generation.

Fifth-generation of computers(Present-Beyond)


  • Fifth-generation of computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in
  • development, though are some applications, such as voice recognition that are being used today.
  • The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.
  • Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computer in years to come.
  • The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.

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