Approaches to organizing
Various approaches have been developed for organizing. The common approaches to organizing are discussed below:
1. Classical Approach
The classical theory includes three different approaches to organizing, consisting of scientific management theory, administrative theory, and bureaucratic theory. All these three theories were propounded on almost similar assumption and the practical efforts of all the three theories are basically the same.
Scientific management theory is developed by F.W. Taylor and later on, several scholars expanded Taylor’s idea. Scientific management is an attitude and philosophy, which discards the traditional method of thumb, hit, and miss, rule of thumb, and trial and error of managing work and workers.
Henry Fayol, a French industrialist and mining engineer by profession, developed the theory of administrative management. According to Fayol, management is a distinct field of study and which involves many managerial functions like forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. He divided all industrial activities into six groups consisting of technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting and managerial.
Max Weber developed a theory of bureaucracy. It is a form of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relations. He offered the bureaucratic model for the management of any large and complex organization. The feature s of bureaucracy consists of a hierarchy of authority, a chain of command, clear-cut division of work, a system of rules, regulations, and procedures, etc.
2. Behavioral Approach
The behavioral approach focuses on human behavior in an organization and seeks to promote verifiable propositions for a specific understanding of human behavior in organizations. A large number of behavioral scientists have made contributions to the behavioral approach. Notable among them are Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, Frederic Herzberg, Mary Parker Follet, etc.
Abraham Maslow, a human psychologist developed a theory of human needs. According to him, people always have needs, and when one needs relatively fulfilled, others emerge in a predictable sequence that takes place. Until the most basic needs are fulfilled, a person will not try to meet his higher-level needs.
Douglas Mc Gregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one negative labeled theory X and another positive labeled theory Y. According to him, theory Y is a set of optimistic assumptions about human nature and theory X is a set of pessimistic assumptions about the workers. As the manager gets the work done from the subordinates, it is necessary for them to understand the behavior of each worker as well as a group.
Frederick Herzberg developed the two-factor theory for work motivation consisting of motivating factors and hygiene factors. The hygiene factor is external to the job itself. The presence of these factors does not motivate employees but the absence of which causes dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors include company policy and supervision, relationship with supervisor, working conditions, salary, relationship with peers, personal life, job security, status, etc.
3. Contingency Approach
A contingency approach to organizing is also known as a situational or practical approach to management. It was developed by practicing managers, consultants, and researchers, who tried to apply the concept of earlier management theories into practice. This approach is based on the premise that there is probably no one best way to solve the management problem in all organizations.
According to this approach, the manager must understand the uniqueness and complexity of each situation. A particular method suitable in one organization at a time may not necessarily be suitable to another one organization at another time. There should be a match between the situation and the manager of dealing. There are four contingency variables that determine management practice.
1. Organization Size
The number of people in an organization is a major influence on what managers do.
2. Routineness of task technology
Organizations apply technology to transform inputs into outputs. Routine technologies require organizational structures, leadership styles and control systems that differ from those required by non-routine technologies.
3. Environmental uncertainty
The degree of uncertainty caused by political, technological, socio-cultural and economic change influences the management process. The style best in a stable environment may be totally inappropriate in a rapidly changing and unpredictable environment.
4. Individual Difference
Individuals differ in a term of their desire for growth, autonomy, and tolerance of ambiguity and expectations. These and other individual differences are particularly important when managers select motivation techniques, leadership styles, and job designs.
Therefore, management can not have ready-made universally applicable and patent principles to be applied to all situations as everlasting truth. Management will have to recognize the nature of technology, the variations in human participants, and the wide diversity in environmental relationships.
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