Theory of Personality
The theory of Personality represents a collection of general principles to explain facts and empirical findings related to personality. Theses theories are grouped into 4 categories:
- Type and Trait Approaches
- Dynamic Approaches
- Learning and Behavioral Approaches
- Humanistic Approaches
A. Type and Trait Approaches:
Type and Trait theories emphasize on people’s character and quality. Type and complement each other. They are like the sides of a coin but different in nature.
It describes what is common among individuals. The oldest type theory was described by Hippocrates and hypothesized 4 basic temperaments (choleric, sanguine, melancholic and phlegmatic).
Similarly, Carl Jung classified individuals into introvert and extrovert types. Thus, type theories are basically the groupings or typology according to the character. Ex; Nepali congress or maobadi, etc.
Traits are characteristics that depict the tendency to behave, feel, and think in ways that are consistent in different ways. It has different perspectives from different scientists like;
- Gordon Allport: It categorizes traits into 3 basic levels i.e cardinal(dominant), central(common) and secondary(less influential than cardinal)
- Raymond B. Cattell: Two types; Surface traits(Traits that are to be responsible for those correlated behaviors) and Source traits(Deep traits which are presumed to be the basic influences in personality and e.g. are warm-cold, trusting-suspicious, etc).
B. Dynamic Approaches:
Sigmund Fried is the head of this psycho-dynamic theory. The basic concepts are divided into the following parts:
- Dynamics of behavior
- The structure of the mind
- Level of consciousness
- Defense mechanisms
- Stages of psychosexual development(oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital stages)
- Treatment of mental diseases
C. Learning and Behavioral Approaches
It focuses on 2 important aspects of uniqueness and consistency.
- Albert Bandura’s: Social Cognitive Theory:
It is also called observational or imitation learning. This theory has developed the basic concepts of personality i.e self-efficiency and self-regulation.
D. Humanistic Approaches
It focuses on happiness and optimistic views arguing that people are basically good and have the ability to grow toward human personality with a higher level of functioning.
- Carl Rogers: The theory of self-concept (self-concept and client-centered therapy)
- Abraham Maslow: Theory of Self-actualization
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