Perspectives of Psychology || Introduction to Psychology || Bcis Notes

Perspectives of Psychology || Introduction to Psychology || Bcis Notes

Perspectives of Psychology:

There are various approaches to contemporary psychology. One of the approaches is perspective psychology. Perspectives of Psychology refers to the view that involves certain assumptions (i.e., beliefs) about human behavior: the way they function, which aspects of them are worthy of study and what research methods are appropriate for undertaking this study. However, Perspectives of Psychology are as follows:

  • Cognitive perspective
  • Behavioral perspective
  • Psychodynamic perspective
  • Humanistic perspective
  • Evolutionary perspective
  • Socio-cultural perspective
  • Gestalt perspective
  • Biological perspective



S.N Perspectives Focus area Key figures






Focuses on processing organizing, storing, and retrieving information. And it is concerned with higher mental processes like thinking, memory, problem-solving, etc. George Miller(1920), Jerome Bruner(1915), and Urich Neisser(1928)




Based on observable behaviors without giving importance to mental processes but the emphasis that learning plays a key role in controlling and influencing all behaviors.  

J.B. Watson(1878-1958) and B.F. Skinner(1950)





Focuses on the belief that the unconscious mind controls over behavior and early childhood experiences influence greatly on personal development. Sigmund Freud(1856-1939)




Contributed in the area of perception emphasizing on innate tendencies of the human mind to structure the physical world. Also, they described the whole is different from the sum of its part.  

Max Wertheimer, Wolf Gang Kohler, Kurt kuffka (1920-1930).





Emphasizes on the psychological health of human beings through psychotherapy, focusing on the individual’s free will, values, and goodness of people.  

Carl Rogers(1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow(1908-1970).








Focuses on the physiology involved in all forms of behaviors and mental processes. Also, uses research tools to investigate the functioning of brains and nerve impulses, and focuses on the role of heredity in normal and abnormal behavior patterns.  


Karl S.Lasthey(1890-1958)






Focuses on how natural selection favors traits that promote the continuation of one’s genes. How evolution influences behavior or structure aids in adaption to the environment?  

D.M. Buss(1991-2000)






Focuses on the influence of how behaviour and thinking vary across diverse cultures.  

Janet Hyde(1990) and David Matsumoto(1994)

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