# Experimental method || Introduction to Psychology || Bcis Notes

## Experimental method:

An experimental method is also called cause and effect relationship. It refers to the most scientific method to bring psychology to the level of science. William Wundt is called the father of experimental psychology as he is the pioneer man to build the first lab of psychology in Leipzig, Germany. It is done in a lab under artificially controlled conditions. In this method, all factors are kept constant and only one factor is varied at a time to know the effect of this variable on the problem of study. To determine the cause and effect relationship.

Steps are as follows:

1. Raising a problem

Sometimes we are puzzled and ask questions to ourselves as to why do people act like this? These inquiries led us to raise problems before us. Ex; why do people smoke?

2. Formulation of a hypothesis

The hypothesis is the assumptions made to test the problem. It may be proved or disproved. Ex; on smoking, “Smoking is harmful to physical and mental capacity”.

3. To distinguish between the dependent variable and the independent variable

The independent variable is the stimulus variable in which the experimenter wants to study to find the effects of its change on the performance. It is the cause. Ex; light, sound, temperature, and noise or character of organisms(rich, poor, caste, etc).
The dependent variable is the response that the experimenter intends to find out so they are the effect. Ex; motivation is the independent variable and performance is the dependent variable.

4. Controlling the environment

The experimenter needs to control the extraneous variables which negatively influence the experiment. This helps to focus only on relevant aspects. Usually, experiments are divided into two parts: controlled and experimental group to compare the result.

5. Analysis of the result

The scientific inquiry requires the result to be analyzed properly by comparing the controlled and experimental groups. It is done through a statistical procedure.

6. Verification of hypothesis or Result of experiment

It knows whether the experiment is proved or not. The positive result boosts us but negative creates doubt.

Limitations:

• The artificial situation of a lab.
•  Difficult in attaining co-operation and attitude of the subject.
• Limited fields.
• The problem of the representative population.