Cognitive learning focuses on the role of perception and understanding play in a more complex form of learning. The psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning. S-R associations can only explain simple forms of learning and not complex forms of learning.
This group is supported by:
1. Cognitive Map: Tolman’s Sign Learning
2. Bandura’s Observational Learning
3. Kohler’s Insight Learning
Cognitive Map: Tolman’s Sign Learning
- Tolman believed individuals do more than merely respond to stimuli.
- According to Tolman reinforcement was not necessary for learning to occur.
- He coined the term – Cognitive Map. Cognitive Map is an internal representation of external environmental features.
- Individual acquire a large number of signals from the environment which he could use to make a mental image or cognitive map to get the goal.
- He worked on latent learning, defined as learning which is not apparent in the learner’s behavior at the time of learning, but which manifest later when a suitable motivation and circumstances appear.
- For example, Tolman conducted a research study using rats and determined that rats use cognitive maps to find where rewards in a maze are located.
Bandura’s Observation Learning:
- Social Learning Theory, also known as social learning, imitational learning, and social cognition theory, was developed by Stand ford University Psychologist Albert Bandura.
- Learning through observation of other’s behavior.
- Learning through indirect experience.
- Observation or vicarious(secondary) learning
Bandura’s “ Bobo Doll” experiment is one of the popular experiments by Bandura and his colleagues Ross & Ross at 1963. This research shows that whether children learn aggressive behaviors by observing the actions of others. Social learning stresses reinforcement facilitates the learning process but is not necessary for learning to occur.
Process in observation Learning are as follows:
- Attention process ( pays attention to the model’s behavior)- Attention to and perceiving the behavior.
- Retention process (long-term retention)-Remembering the behavior.
- Motor reproduction process (Performs)- Converting the memory into action.
- Motivational process ( Pleasure or pain, pressures to retain it)- Reinforcement of the imitated behavior.
Vicarious Rewards or Reinforcement:
- Vicarious Rewards: When an observer increases a type of behavior for which they have seen others being reinforced. E. g. Individuals desire to be a pop star- Pop star earns name and fame in a short time.
- It depends upon the reinforce whether it serves as a reward or punishment.
E.g. Nepalese staying abroad – suffered more problems.
Kohler’s Insight Learning:
- It is the process of higher learning or problem solving through intelligence and cognitive abilities.
- Work of German Psychologist Wolf Gang Kohler.
- In the 1920s Kohler was studying the behavior of Apes.
- He designed some simple experiments that led to the development of one of the first cognitive theories of learning, which he called insight learning.
- In insight learning the perceptual stimuli are restructured in different ways and rely on cognitive processes.
- It is the “Aha” or “I’ve got it” experience.
Characteristics of Kohler’s Insight Learning:
- Insight leads to a change in perception.
- Insight is sudden.
- Understanding plays an important role in insight learning.
- Age influences insight learning.
- Experience and perceptual organization are important in insight learning.
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