Database Management Systems

Unit One: Introduction                                                                                                              

  • Database management systems and their applications,
  • Purpose of Database systems,
  • View of Data, Data models, Database  Language, Instances and schemes,
  • Database users and administrators,
  • Application architecture(one-tier, two-tier, n-tier)

Unit Two: Database Design and the E-R model                                                              

  • E-R model,
  • Entity sets, Relationship  sets,  Attributes,  Constraints,  Mapping  Cardinalities, Participation constraints, Keys (Super key, Candidate key, Primary key),
  • Entity Relationship Diagram,
  • Basic Structure, Mapping Cardinality,
  • mapping cardinalities in E-R DIAGRAM,
  • Complex attributes, Roles, non-binary relationship sets, Weak, strong entity sets, E-R Diagram



Unit Three: Introduction to the Relational model                                                         

  • Structure of Rational database,
  • Database Schemes (case study), Keys,
  • Schema Diagram,
  • Rational Query Language, Relational opera


Unit Four: Introduction to SQL                                                                                     

  • Overview of SQL Query language,
  • SQL Data Definition, Basic types,
  • Basic Schema Definition,
  • Basic Structure of SQL Queries (single, multiple), Natural join, Additional Basic Operations, Set operational (union,  intersect,  except),  Null  Values,  Aggregate  function  (Basic,  Grouping, Having,  Nested  sub-queries  (comparison,  empty  relating  from  clause)  Scalar  sub-queries),
  • Modification of the database.(insert, update, delete),
  • Join Expression, join conditions, outer joins, view, materialized view, Transaction (commit, Rollback), Integrity constraints (not null, unique, check, referential integrity), Authorization (Grant, Revoke), Roles, view, transfer of privileges, revoking of privileges,
  • Functions and Procedures, Declaring and Revoking SQL functions and Procedures,
  • Language constraints for procedures and functions, Triggers, indexes


Unit Five: Relational Database Design                                                                         

  • Database anomalies,
  • Functional Dependencies,
  • Basic Concepts, Closure of set of Functional Dependencies,
  • closure  of   attribute   set,
  • Decomposition,  Lossless Join Decompositions,
  • Dependency preservation,  Normalization,  First  Normal  Form,  Second  Normal  Form,  Third Normal Form, Boyce -Codd Normal Form,
  • Comparison of BCNF and 3NF


Unit Six: Transactions                                                                                                            

  • ACID Properties,
  • Simple transactions  models,
  • Storage structure,  transaction  atomicity  of durability,
  • Transaction Isolation, Serializability, transaction isolation and atomicity, Locking, timestamp


Unit Seven: Concurrency Control                                                                                   

  • Lock-Based protocols, Dead-lock handling,
  • Multiple Granularities, Time-stamp Based Protocols,
  • Validation based protocols


Unit Eight: Recovery System                                                                                                 

  • Failure  classification,   Storage,   Recovery   and   atomicity,   Recovery   Algorithm,
  • Buffer management,
  • Failure with loss of non-volatile storage,
  • Early lock release and logical undo operations,
  • Remote Backup systems